Free Stonehenge Essay Sample
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Many early historians were profoundly influenced by supernatural tales in their studies and research. Some old tales claim that Merlin had a monster construct a structure for him while other claim that the mega structure was transported magically from Mount Killaraus in Ireland. On the other hand, some held the Devil accountable. The first person to write about the monument was Henry of Huntingdon, he wrote about it in 1130. Soon after Henry, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote about it too, he was the first, to record imaginary connections with Merlin. This recording led the testimonial to be integrated into the cycle of European medieval romance. According to Geoffrey's Historia, with the help of his magic Merlin transferred the circle from its original place in Ireland at the will of Aurelius Ambrosius. The place was intended to serve as a suitable entombment place for Britain's dead princes.
John Webb in 1655, working in the name of his previous senior Ingo Jones, argued that Stonehenge was a Roman temple. He said that it was a dedication to the Greek sky-god Uranus (Caelus), and it was built as a result of Tuscan order. After a long time, commentators maintained that it was erected by the Danes. Indeed, way till the late nineteenth century, accreditation of the place went to the Saxons or other comparatively current societies.
Scholars have not been left behind; the first scholarly attempt to study and comprehend the monument was in 1640 by John Aubrey. John Aubrey attributed the Stonehenge to the druids. On his side was William Stukeley who popularized the view further. In addition, Aubrey developed the first measured drawings of the place this development gave way for further analysis of the site’s significance and form. Through this, he was able to show the astronomical role in Stonehenge’s positioning. John Wood did the first accurate survey of the site 1740. However, Stukeley was not comfortable with Wood’s explanation of the monument as a place of pagan custom he saw the druids as biblical patriarchs and not as pagans. Another scholar, John Lubbock attributed the site to the Bronze Age considering the bronze objects found in the site.
While there exist few theories explaining who built the Stonehenge, or the reason of building it, there exists an evaluation of what is a fact and the disapproved theories. According to the results of Radiocarbon Dating, the construction of the site begun in 3100 BC, and completed around 1600 BC. Through this some theories faced elimination. The most popular theory claiming that the Druids built the Stonehenge can be seen to be misplaced. Because, the Celtics society that initiated the Druid priesthood existed only after 300 BC. In addition, the Druids performed a majority of their sacrifices in the forests, places convenient for ‘earth rituals’ than in open fields. Other theories that can be ruled out through the use of time include the theory that the Roman Empire was responsible for the building of the Stonehenge. As a fact, the Romans went to the British Isles only in 55 BC the expedition led by Julius Caesar. Through this theory, of Ingo Jones and others that the Stonehenge was a Roman temple are all wrong.
Some scholars argue that the site was ancient healing and pilgrimage site these scholars include archaeologists from Bournemouth University. They claimed this because the burials around the site showed deformity and trauma evidence. The archaeologists also came across charcoal, and contrary to the dates given from the carbon dating that the site existed between 2,400 B.C. and 2,200 B.C. the charcoal they found dated 7,000 B.C., this gave evidence of human activity on the site.
A recent analysis draws interest to detail that the stones exhibited mirrored symmetry. This is the only unquestionable arrangement to be found is solstices that can be referred as the axis of that symmetry. This give the impression that the site was designed some place different and then transferred to the ground. Based on the simple fact that construction of such balanced site one must put it to test before putting it on the ground.
The precision idea that exact positions of reference must be used, between the structural element and the axis relation that is the solstices. The engineering designs used in this construction can be seen clearly. As seen on the site almost all stones have flatter surfaces and the faces are invariable inwards, this indicates that the builders used the center point as reference. This can be related to other construction styles like the Great Trilithon. In the Trilithon, the remaining upright has its flatter face on the outside; this show that the structure rose from the inside.
The Trilithon array contained construction ramps that sloped inwards, this meant that the set up from the outside. Putting the center face stones against the markers meant that the gaps between the stones were consequential. Geometry layouts of Stonehenge show that these methods were used, and it is clear evidence regarding other distant elements were part of a geometric scheme. A geometric blueprint is scalable from impression to construction, removing much of the need for dimensions to be made.
The main question is the transportation of the stones used in the construction of the Stonehenge. Many theorists have tried to come up with various different methodologies on transportation of the stones. Most researchers claim that the stones were brought in from Wales by hand and not by glaciers. In 2001 an experimental archaeology exercise was carried out, this was an endeavor to move a hefty stone along a sea and land routes from Wales to Stonehenge. Volunteers tried to pull it for miles with considerable difficulty; they used wooden sledges over which they put the stones. They used modern roads that aimed at reducing friction aiming at facilitating sliding. This experiment led to the discovery it could have been exceedingly difficult for the tribal groups to pull the stones across the densely wooded, boggy and rough terrain of West Wales.
Estimates show that the Stonehenge required a lot of man power to complete its construction. According to the research done the various stones considering their weight and bulkiness could have taken more than 10 years of work. For example, Stonehenge one required around 11,000 man-hours (or 460 days) of work, Stonehenge 2 about 360,000 (14,000 man-days or 40 years). The different sections of Stonehenge 3 involved up to 1.74 million hours (70,000 days or 197 years) of work. Shaping the stones took an estimate of 14 million hours (750,000 days or 1,500 years) of working with the primeval tools. It evident from the statistics that, to build such a site required a well coordinated and organized work force. The driving force to come up with such an outstanding site was well driven by will and desire. However, scholars like Wally Wallington's suggest that the work force required to build the Stonehenge could have been fewer than estimated. Interestingly, mathematics show that an estimate of 20 million hours translates to 10,000 men working for 20 days every year, for eight hours a day, could complete the Stonehenge construction in 12.5 years.
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